Polymer development involves both the synthesis and modification of polymers to obtain ion-conducting polymers (ionomers). The concept for polymer synthesis is shown below.
The experimental synthesis procedures include:
1. Preparation of polymers via nucleophilic displacement aromatic polycondensation, followed by sulfonation to obtain a proton-conducting sulfonated polymer
- Preparation and Characterisation of Sulfonated Partially Fluorinated Statistical Arylene Main-Chain Co-Ionomers and Their Blends with PBI. F. Schönberger, M. Hein, J. Kerres, Solid State Ionics 2007, 178 (7-10), 547-554.
- Partially Fluorinated Poly(arylene ether)s: Investigation of the Dependence of Monomeric Structures on Polymerisability and Degradation during Sulfonation. F. Schönberger, A. Chromik, J. Kerres, Polymer 2010, 51(19), 4299 - 4313.
- Design concepts for aromatic ionomers and ionomer membranes to be applied to fuel cells and electrolysis. J. Kerres, Polymer Reviews 2015, 55, 273-306.
2. Hydrocarbon polymers via radical polymerization, followed by nucleophilic substitution reactions to obtain a proton-conducting sulfonated or phosphonated polymer or an anion-conducting polymer
- Highly phosphonated polypentafluorostyrene. V. Atanasov, J. Kerres, Macromolecules 2011, 44, 6416–6423.
- Sulfonated poly(pentafluorostyrene): synthesis & characterization. V. Atanasov, M. Bürger, S. Lyonnard, G. Gebel, J. Kerres, Solid State Ionics, 2013, 252, 75-83.
- Novel anion exchange membrane based on poly(pentafluorostyrene) substituted with mercaptotetrazole pendant groups and its blend with polybenzimidazole for vanadium redox flow battery application. Hyeongrae Cho, Vladimir Atanasov, Henning M Krieg and Jochen A Kerres, Polymers 2020, 12, 915.
3. Preparation of an anion-exchange polymer by nucleophilic polycondensation, subsequent bromomethylation with NBS, and reaction with a tertiary amine to obtain an anion-exchange polymer
- Novel morpholinium-functionalized anion-exchange PBI-polymer blends. C. Morandi, R. Peach, H. M. Krieg, J. Kerres, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015, 3, 1110-1120.
- Novel Imidazolium-Functionalized Anion-Exchange Polymer PBI Blend Membranes. C. G. Morandi, R. Peach, H. M. Krieg, J. Kerres, J. Memb. Sci. 2015, 476, 256-263.